November 30, 2022

What was the Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua, what were its causes, objectives and history

Read Time:4 Minute, 19 Second


(CNN Spanish) –– On July 19, but in 1979, the streets of Managua witnessed an event that would mark the future of Nicaragua to the present: the troops of the Sandinista Revolution triumphantly entered the country’s capital two days after President Anastasio Somoza Debayle will flee to Miami.

The Somoza dictatorship and his family’s control of Nicaragua for more than four decades had come to an end.

Overthrow the Somoza dictatorship, the goal of the Sandinista Revolution

Anastasio Somoza Debayle was the third of the Somoza dynasty to occupy the Presidency of Nicaragua. By then, his family had maintained control of the country through its own members and close associates for 44 years.

The Somoza family “had taken over the nation’s heritage, managing it as if it were a farm they owned,” explains Dr. Robinson Salazar Pérez in Political and Social Science. in this research article. The country was sunk in institutional chaos with an unfinished nation project.

Anastasio Somoza photographed in 1978 in Managua. (Credit: AFP via Getty Images)

Before reaching the highest position in the state, Anastasio Somoza had risen rapidly to power in the military structure, reports the Encyclopedia Britannica. He had supported the United States during the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in 1961 and the intervention in the Dominican Republic four years later.

And for years, Somoza, like his father and brother, had received the unwavering support of the US government. The situation changed with Jimmy Carter, who withdrew the assist.

In this framework, a revolution grew whose leaders, Mario Medrano of CNN reviews in this article, wanted to create a system based on human rights, economic development with social justice and greater equity in the distribution of wealth. To achieve this they had to overthrow the Somozas.

The long road of the FSLN to the victory of 1979

The Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), at the head of the revolution, was founded in 1961. It took its name from Augusto Cesar Sandinoleader of the Nicaraguan resistance against the US occupation between 1927 and 1933.

“The Sandinista Front emerged by making its way through the darkness imposed by the exploiting class. Inspired by the pain and misery suffered by popular actors, it wants to rescue the noblest traditions of the Nicaraguan community,” said one of its founders in 1981 , Carlos Fonseca, according to a study published by the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Research Studies.

In its early stages, the front’s military action failed, according to Salazar Pérez. The movement then recognized that it needed to add other groups to its struggle and worked with labor, peasant and intellectual sectors. It grew in the period between 1965 and 1967, but without the strength to achieve its goal of overthrowing the dictatorship.

In 1969, the FSLN planted a broad program that revealed its objectives for Nicaragua. It proposed, among other actions, the implementation of an agrarian revolution, labor and security legislation, the elimination of the National Guard and the advance of a popular patriotic army, an independent foreign policy and Central American unity. Everything, according to the review of his program, based on a “revolutionary government and administrative honesty.”

Nicaraguan urban guerrillas loyal to the Sandinista National Liberation Front display a homemade mortar used in July 1979 in Managua to fight dictator Anastasio Somoza’s National Guard. (Credit: AFP via Getty Images)

The popularity of the movement increased. By 1974, after a process of organization and occasional attacks, the front was consolidated and was training its cadres at a military and political level both in Nicaragua and abroad with the support of Cuba.

After some successful military attacks, Somoza decided to declare a state of siege and carried out a “widespread persecution, imprisoning and murdering thousands of Nicaraguans who, despite not having a direct relationship with the FSNL, were enemies of the dictatorship”.

The resistance against the dictatorship grew. A key fact that increased the resistance against the dictator was the murder, in January 1978, of the journalist Pedro Joaquín Chamorro, then director of the newspaper La Prensa.

The figure of Daniel Ortega

In 1979, Daniel Ortega, the current president of Nicaragua, was appointed as coordinator of the National Reconstruction Government Board that was installed after the victory.

Somoza never returned to Nicaragua: from Miami he traveled to the Bahamas and then to Paraguay, where he was assassinated in 1980.

And Nicaragua was embroiled in a civil war against US-backed rebels, the so-called “contras.”

In 1984 elections were held in which Ortega won but in which the opposition concentrated in the Nicaraguan Democratic Coordinator did not participate, considering that there were no guarantees, according to the study center Cidob.

He ruled until 1990, when he lost at the polls to Violeta Barrios, the year that reports mark as the end of the revolution.

The Sandinista Revolution marked the end of the cycle of armed revolutions in Latin America that began in 1910 with the revolution in Mexico led by Emiliano Zapata and Pacho Villa, reviews the National Autonomous University of Managua.

With information from Mario Medrano and Germán Padinger.



Source link

Happy
Happy
0 %
Sad
Sad
0 %
Excited
Excited
0 %
Sleepy
Sleepy
0 %
Angry
Angry
0 %
Surprise
Surprise
0 %

Average Rating

5 Star
0%
4 Star
0%
3 Star
0%
2 Star
0%
1 Star
0%

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Previous post They test new nasal and oral vaccines against covid-19
Next post What is Marburg virus, what causes it, and how is it transmitted?